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In very old designs the wires were discrete connections between card connector pins, but printed circuit boards soon became the standard practice.

What Does the Inside of Your PC Look Like?

The Central Processing Unit CPU , memory, and peripheralswere housed on individual printed circuit boards, which were plugged into the backplate. During the late s and s, it became economical to move an increasing number of peripheral functions onto the motherboard. By the lates, many personal computer motherboards supported a full range of audio, video, storage, and networking functions without the need for any expansion cards at all; higher-end systems for 3D gaming and computer graphics typically retained only the graphics card as a separate component.

The most popular computers such as the Apple II and IBM PC had published schematic diagrams and other documentation which permitted rapid reverse-engineering and third-party replacement motherboards. The Octek Jaguar V motherboard from This board has few onboard peripherals, as evidenced by the 6 slots provided for ISA cards and the lack of other built-in external interface connectors.

The motherboard of a Samsung Galaxy SII; almost all functions of the device are integrated into a very small board.

See how all the internal parts of a computer are interconnected

A motherboard provides the electrical connections by which the other components of the system communicate. Unlike a backplane, it also contains the central processing unit and hosts other subsystems and devices. A typical desktop computer has its microprocessor, main memory, and other essential components connected to the motherboard. Other components such as external storage, controllers for video display and sound, and peripheral devices may be attached to the motherboard as plug-in cards or via cables, in modern computers it is increasingly common to integrate some of these peripherals into the motherboard itself.

This chipset determines, to an extent, the features and capabilities of the motherboard.


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  • How Are Motherboards Made: Understanding the Process of Motherboard Manufacturing.
  • Form Factor?

Additional peripherals such as disk controllers and serial ports were provided as expansion cards. Given the high thermal design power of high-speed computer CPUs and components, modern motherboards nearly always include heat sinks and mounting points for fans to dissipate excess heat. Motherboards are produced in a variety of sizes and shapes called computer form factor, some of which are specific to individual computer manufacturers.

However, the motherboards used in IBM-compatible systems are designed to fit various case sizes.

Motherboards Explained

Laptop computers generally use highly integrated, miniaturized and customized motherboards. This is one of the reasons that laptop computers are difficult to upgrade and expensive to repair. Often the failure of one laptop component requires the replacement of the entire motherboard, which is usually more expensive than a desktop motherboard due to the large number of integrated components.

It is a special type of integrated circuit socket designed for very high pin counts. A CPU socket provides many functions, including a physical structure to support the CPU, support for a heat sink, facilitating replacement as well as reducing cost , and most importantly, forming an electrical interface both with the CPU and the PCB. CPU sockets on the motherboard can most often be found in most desktop and server computers laptops typically use surface mount CPUs , particularly those based on the Intel x86 architecture.

Block diagram of a modern motherboard, which supports many on-board peripheral functions as well as several expansion slots. A typical motherboard will have a different number of connections depending on its standard and form factor. It can sometimes also have a PCI-E 4x slot will vary between brands and models. These allow 2 to 4 graphics cards to be linked together, to allow better performance in intensive graphical computing tasks, such as gaming, video editing, etc. Some small form factor computers and home theater PCs designed for quiet and energy-efficient operation boast fan-less designs.

This typically requires the use of a low-power CPU, as well as careful layout of the motherboard and other components to allow for heat sink placement.

Label the cables to ensure proper connection later. Loosen the captive Phillips screw on each end of the back panel crossbar [1]. Move the crossbar to the rear of the chassis and lift it up to remove it from the chassis [2]. Disconnect any internal cables connected to the PCIe card installed in the riser.

Loosen the captive Phillips screw on the end of the riser [1].

How to Buy a Motherboard: Chipset, Socket & Form Factor Explained | Tom's Hardware

Lift up the riser and the PCIe card attached to it, if any, as a unit [2]. The server has three PCIe risers. Install the screw that secures the riser to the motherboard [2].

Slide the crossbar down over the PCIe risers. The crossbar is secured with two captive Phillips screws. If any cards are attached to the PCIe riser, reconnect the cables that you unplugged during the removal procedure. Connect any data cables you removed to service the PCIe cards.

Reconnect the power cord or cords to the power supply or supplies and power on the server. This card connects to internal storage devices, that is, devices that are physically located inside the system chassis and supports RAID. Connects to external storage devices and supports RAID. Connects to internal storage devices, that is, devices that are physically located inside the system chassis.

The server supports up to three PCIe cards. This card cannot be installed in PCIe slot 1. In addition to the PCIe card, the PCIe card installation kit includes applicable option card installation information that you should reference for additional installation instructions. Locate the PCIe card that you want to remove, and note its corresponding riser board. If necessary, make a note of where the PCIe cards are installed.

The Basics: Chipsets, Board Size, Connectors & Ports

Unplug all data cables from the PCIe card. To disconnect the cables from the PCIe card, press the latch, push in toward the connector, and then pull out the cable to remove the cable. Note the location of all cables for reinstallation later. Place the PCIe card on an antistatic mat. Unpack the replacement PCIe card and place it on an antistatic mat. Locate the proper PCIe slot for the card you are replacing. If necessary, review the PCIe card guidelines to plan your installation. Place the PCIe riser into the motherboard and tighten the captive Phillips screw securing the riser to the motherboard [2].

If necessary, remove the PCI slot filler panel from the back panel crossbar. Reconnect the cables to the PCIe card that you unplugged during the removal procedure.

Connect any required data cables to the PCIe card. Route data cables through the cable management arm. To determine if additional steps are required to complete the installation of the PCIe card, see the hardware installation guide for the type of PCIe card you installed.

The battery maintains system time when the server is powered off and a time server is unavailable. If the server fails to maintain the proper time when the server is powered off and not connected to a network, replace the battery. Place you finger between the battery and sidewall of the server chassis and push the battery away from the sidewall FIGURE Twist the battery either clockwise or counter-clockwise and lift it out. If the service processor is configured to synchronize with a network time server using the Network Time Protocol NTP , the ILOM clock will be reset as soon as the server is powered on and connected to the network.

Otherwise, proceed to the next step. For instructions, see the ILOM 3.

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The following topics are cove red:. See Removing the Server From the Rack. Turn the screws alternately one and one half turns until they are fully removed. Twist the heat sink slightly to break the grease seal, lift off the heat sink and place it upside down on a flat surface to prevent the thermal grease from contaminating other components.

Use an alcohol pad to clean the thermal grease from both the bottom of the heat sink and the top of the CPU. Be very careful not to get the thermal grease on your fingers. Disengage the CPU release lever by pushing down and moving it to the side away from the CPU, and then rotating the lever upward [3]. Open the pressure frame and carefully remove the CPU [4].

How to Buy a Motherboard: A Guide for 12222

Two procedures are provide here for installing the CPU:. Unpack the replacement CPU and place it on an antistatic mat. Ensure that the orientation is correct as damage might result if the CPU pins are not aligned correctly. Ensure that the pressure frame sits flat around the periphery of the CPU. Engage the release lever by rotating it downward and slipping it under the catch [2]. Use the syringe supplied with the new or replacement CPU to apply approximately 0.

Do not distribute the grease. Inspect the heat sink for dust and lint. Clean if necessary. Orient the heat sink so that the two screws line up with the mounting studs [3]. Carefully position the heat sink on the CPU, aligning it with the mounting posts to reduce movement after it makes initial contact with the layer of thermal grease [3].